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Agronomy Support

Tips for Preparing Grain Stores for Harvest

Good grain store hygiene is fundamental to UK growers who want to reduce post-harvest losses.

Up to 10% of grain stored can be lost to mites and insects – a significant figure but one that can be avoided if growers adopt an integrated approach to pest management.

Good ventilation, drying and cooling are all important factors.

Flour mite

Mites – the commenest pest of stored grain

But the basis for retaining quality in stores starts with controlling mites and insects.  In mild winters such as 2016, mites will have bred and populations may be well established already.

Respiring insects and mites will generate heat and moisture and can cause localised hot spots within the grain pile. This further promotes breeding and may encourage the development of moulds.

Preventative action is essential before combines begin to roll.

Reldan® 22 is a broad spectrum acaricide and insecticide that will control all major pests of stored grain including Flour, Cosmopolitan and Copra Mites, the three main mite species found in UK grain stores.

Ideally fabric applications of Reldan 22 should be applied 4 weeks prior to grain filling to allow sufficient time for pests harboured in cracks and crevices to emerge and come into contact with the chemical.

Reldan works by fumigation, contact and ingestion and can offer protection for up to 6 months against mite and insect infestation. There is no withholding period for grain subsequently stored on those premises.

Pre-Harvest Action Plan:

Grain store fabric treatment should be used as part of an integrated management approach:

  1. Ensure grain store is emptied of any old grain and debris.
  2. Sweep, or ideally use a high pressure airline, grain store paying close attention to crevices.
    • Don’t neglect roof space, and under the ventilation flooring.
    • Ensure sweepings are disposed of well away from grain store sites, or ideally, burn them.
    • Wear appropriate PPE including a dust mask.
  3. Apply Reldan 22 at 200 ml in 5-10 litres of water per 100 m2 ideally 4 weeks before harvest via a knapsack, motorised knapsack or tractor-operated spray lance.
    • If surfaces are porous increase the water volume to 10 litres per 100 m2
  4. Wear impermeable coveralls, suitable protective gloves, rubber boots and face protection and for best practice ensure good ventilation during application.

Through-out grain storage check grain store regularly for insect activity using sticky and pitfall traps.

Can I apply Reldan 22 to stores intended for oilseed rape?
Yes. If the store is metal bins allow 4 weeks minimum before loading with oilseed rape. If concrete, this can be reduced to 1 day but do remember ideally you want 4 weeks between treatment and filling, to allow treatment to work.

For more details on Reldan 22 click here.



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Grassland Agronomy Update – May 2017

Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences.

These regular technical notes are a seasonal commentary to help those interested in improving grassland productivity on dairy, beef, sheep & equestrian enterprises.

You can claim two CPD points for subscribing to this email update.


  • Target docks after silage
  • Leystar on maize
  • Spray thistles in May/June
  • Dose rates and perennial weeds
  • Spot treat with GrazonPro
  • Right time to spray buttercups
  • Use the Grassland APP for 24/7 support
  • FAQs
  • Dow AgroSciences show calendar

Target docks after silage

docks regrowing after cutting
You need 3 weeks before cutting to spray Doxstar®Pro to enable it to fully translocate down into the dock roots. Where that window is not available plan to spray around two weeks after cutting instead.

The re-growth will have fresh green leaves and all at a similar stage, ideal for taking up a translocated herbicide. There will be less grass too making it easier to hit the target plants.

DoxstarPro gives good control of both broadleaved and curled docks. Apply at full dose rate of 2 L/ha in a water volume of 300 L/ha, unless air inclusion nozzles are being used, when the water volume can be reduced to 200 L/ha.

DoxstarPro is very safe to grass – recent market research carried out by Dow AgroSciences shows this is still top of the concerns for grassland farmers who spray herbicides.

Leystar on maize

New Leystar® has approval for post-emergence weed control in maize

Leystar combines clopyralid, fluroxypyr and new active for maize florasulam making it a very wide broad spectrum herbicide.

It should be applied when the forage maize is between the three and six leaf stage and before the crop is over 20 cm tall. It must not be applied once the buttress roots have started to develop on the first node.

Annual weeds that will be controlled include:

  • Black nightshade
  • Black bindweed
  • Charlock
  • Chickweed
  • Cleavers
  • Fat hen
  • Mayweed

LeystarLeystar will be an ideal partner in a program where pendimethalin is used.

The dose rate is 1.0 L/ha and it can be applied to maize from 10th April to 31st May. We hope to have this cutoff date extended for 2018 use.

Find more information on our Leystar Technical Information sheet.


Spray thistles in May/June

May/June is the time to spray thistles. Thistles tolerate dry conditions and will outcompete grass for any residual moisture. They prevent animals grazing all the grass in a field and are thought to help spread orf, a highly contagious viral disease of lambs and ewes.

The virus lives in the surface of the skin, but infection gets going once the skin is scratched by lambs grazing too close to thistles.

Affected ewes often develop mastitis. Infected lambs do not grow as quickly as healthy lambs, and they take longer to finish and market.

Topping thistles gives only temporary reprieve, especially with creeping thistles as they produce more stems from buds running below ground after cutting.

Options for spraying thistles

  • Where thistles dominate, spray with Thistlex® using a tractor mounted or self-propelled sprayer. Thistlex also controls nettles.
  • If the area taken by the thistles is less than 5%, spot treat with Grazon®Pro.
  • If a broader range of weeds is involved, use the Pas·Tor® Agronomy Pack.

All these products will take out all species of thistles, such as Spear, Creeping or Marsh. Tackling them now reduces the amount of new plants that will germinate from seed this year.

Dose rates and perennial weeds

Dose rates on products are set using the criteria minimum effective dose. Reducing a dose rate particularly on perennial weeds is likely to result in poor weed control and survival.

Adjuvants can have complimentary activity e.g. drift retardence or limiting the effect of herbicide lock up in hard water areas but adjuvants are not a substitute for dose when targeting perennial weeds.

When adjuvants are used on crops destined for human or animal consumption, residues data must be submitted, showing the effects of the adjuvant on pesticide residue levels.

No residues data will be required where the adjuvant is used with a pesticide half or less than half the approved rate of the pesticide.  Reducing the rate by this level and including an adjuvant is also false economy. The effect on the target weeds will be significantly reduced from spraying at the full rate on its own. Further lower rates leads to more incidences of repeat spraying which is not good for the environment and with many grassland sprays being applied by a contractor, unnecessary cost.

Spot treat with GrazonPro

There is really only one option for spot spraying in grassland and that’s Grazon®Pro. There is a need to be able to control small areas of docks, thistles, nettles and other weeds by hand, for example around gateways and water troughs. It is also more cost effective than a boom spray where weed populations are below 5%.

  • GrazonPro contains 60 g/litre of clopyralid + 240 g/litre of triclopyr
  • Excellent control of broadleaved dock, curled dock, creeping thistle, spear thistle and common nettle and a large range of other weeds
  • Fast acting and translocates down to the roots
  • Animals can be re-introduced after only seven days (not if ragwort is present)
  • Rainfast in two hours
  • Very safe to grass
  • Good value for money – 16 knapsacks from each litre of product when mixed in 10 litre batches
  • Comes with free measuring beaker

GrazonPro is for professional use and can only be used by suitably qualified people who hold a PA1 and PA6 certificate.

Right time to spray buttercups

Best levels of control are achieved before flowering. If you spray when they are in flower you can still get good control but not to the same level as if sprayed earlier.

Envy® – our new solution for weeds typically found in pastures which receive minimal nitrogen, controls both creeping and meadow buttercups, daisies and dandelions and is also pretty effective on plantains.

These weeds will smother grass and limit the provision of forage to grazing animals. Envy contains florasulam + fluroxypyr, it has no manure management restrictions after use – so ideal to use in pony paddocks. Its short stock withdrawal period of just 7 days makes planning in its use much easier then phenoxy based options which require a 14 day stock withdrawal period.

Use the Dow AgroSciences Grassland APP for 24/7 support

Use the Dow AgroSciences Grassland APP for 24/7 support and to access product labels, product technical sheets and our FAQ database at any time.

Download the Grassland App, by using one of these links:

App Store / Google Play / Windows Store 

If the App is already downloaded, please ensure the latest version is being used.


Q.  How does the Pas·Tor Agronomy pack compare to PastorPro?
One Pas·Tor® Agronomy Pack will treat 2 hectares and give the same level of control that Pastor®Pro would do if it was applied at 3.0 L/ha.

Q.  Can I use Envy through a knapsack?
No. Its use in this way is not supported by Dow AgroSciences. The only product we have for knapsack use in established grassland is GrazonPro which should cover all needs.

Q. I want to make the Forefront®T stewardship recommendation via the APP but I don’t have a smart phone, what do I do?
Use the stewardship feature on the web:


Show Dates

The technical team from Dow AgroSciences will be out and about at many shows and events this summer, talking to farmers and agronomists and answering questions on how to tackle weed problems in their fields.

Catch the team at:

May 24th &  25th Grassland & Muck Stoneleigh Park, Warwickshire
May 31st NSA Highland Sheep Strathpeffer, Ross-shire
June 7th NSA North Sheep Tow Law, County Durham
June 8th Scottish Beef Event Earlston, Berwickshire
June 20th NSA Sheep South West Tiverton, Devon


For regular updates on agronomic issues, find us on Twitter and Facebook!

For further information please contact the technical Hotline on 0800 689 8899 / or go to

Use plant protection products safely. Always read the label and product information before use. For further information including warning phrases and symbols refer to label.

® Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow.  All other brand names are trademarks of other manufacturers for which proprietary rights may exist.

DoxstarPro contains fluroxypyr and triclopyr
Envy contains fluroxypyr and florasulam
Forefront T contains aminopyralid and triclopyr
GrazonPro contains clopyralid and triclopyr
Leystar contains fluroxypyr, clopyralid and florasulam
PastorPro contains clopyralid, fluroxypyr and triclopyr
Pas·Tor Agronomy Pack contains clopyralid, fluroxypyr and triclopyr
Thistlex contains clopyralid and triclopyr


Dow AgroSciences Limited, CPC2, Capital Park, Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB21 5XE.  Tel: +44 (0) 1462 457272.
Technical Hotline: 0800 689 8899 email: |



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View All Topic Sheets
Can Zypar be tank mixed with Axial?

Yes, Zypar is fully supported in TM with Axial.

When is the best time to apply to spring cereals?

When weeds are small and actively growing.

How quickly will weeds die after an application of Zypar?

Depends on the weed. Weeds which Arylex controls will be controlled very quickly such as poppy, cleavers, cranesbill. Those controlled by florasulam such as groundsel, mayweed and brassica weeds will take longer.

What are the following crop restrictions?

There are no following crop restrictions after an application of Zypar.

Does Zypar have ALS restrictions?

Yes. As Zypar contains florasulam, you have to obey ALS restrictions. This means that you sequence Zypar with either an ALS graminicide such as Atlantis, or another BLW ALS. The exception to this rule is if you use another florasulam contain product (max loading 7.5 g.a.i./ha) such as Spitfire as this can still be sequenced with your ALS graminicide

Can I tank mix Zypar with other inputs?

Yes, Zypar has one of the most extensive list of tank mix compatibility of any product giving you greater manufacture support than ever before.

Can Pixxaro EC be applied to all cereal types?

No, label crops are wheat, barley, rye, triticale and spelt. We are undertaking trials to add winter oats to the label in the future. Pixxaro EC cannot be applied to maize.

If I have applied 2 ALS herbicide products to a crop can I follow with Pixxaro EC?

Yes, the active ingredients in Pixxaro EC (Arylex and Fluroxypyr) are both non-ALS, therefore this sequence would be permitted.

Are there any restrictions on the minimum temperature that Pixxaro EC should be applied at?

No, one of the unique points of Arylex containing products such as Pixxaro EC, is that there are no requirements. Symptoms and weed death will be slower at colder temperatures, however the level of control achieved is the same regardless of the temperature.