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The whole farm approach to controlling weeds in combinable crops, using rotations, cultivation methods, sowing date, variety choice and weed knowledge alongside crop protection products.

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Arable Update – October 2016

TP21869 Arable Update Newsletter header

In this Edition

  • Brome identification
  • Volunteer bean and volunteer oilseed rape control
  • Preventing nitrogen leaching during fluctuating weather patterns
  • Time your oilseed rape treatment to perfection
  • Canopy size and Kerb

Brome Identification

For UK arable farmers, brome grasses continue to be some of the most pernicious and difficult weeds to control. In the UK, there are five species of brome which occur as arable weeds. To maximize successful control you need to identify the species present, and time applications accordingly depending on whether they are autumn or sprbrome-in-wheating germinators. To help identify which species you are tackling you should refer to the joint Dow AgroSciences/Rothamsted Research – Know your brome guide.

Broadway® Star, the market leader for over half a decade, provides the most robust and consistent option for effective long term brome control.

Autumn application of Broadway Star for autumn germinating bromes (great & sterile brome) has been shown to consistently deliver the best results. If this autumn is as mild as last year, the advice is to apply Broadway Star in the autumn.

Broadway Star is much more than just a graminicide as it provides control of many broad-leaved weeds such as speedwells, volunteer oilseed rape and beans, chickweed, cranesbill and cleavers, all of which readily germinate in the autumn.

Volunteer bean and oilseed rape control

winter bean volunteers in WWSpitfire® still represents the best option for volunteer bean and oilseed rape control this autumn. With its unique formulation, Spitfire delivers consistent, robust control of volunteers, whilst using a lower dose of florasulam than other formulations on the market leaving you with ALS flexibility in the spring. Also, it does not contain DFF, giving you flexibility with your autumn residual programme and following crop options.

Spitfire is LERAP B, meaning it has a reducible buffer zone as long as the LERAP requirements are met. This means that you can spray all parts of the field giving you complete control, unlike some of the options currently on the market.

Spitfire can be used at 0.5l/ha + Methylated Seed Oil adjuvant on volunteer beans up to 4 true leaves, providing complete control even in fluctuating temperatures. For larger weeds the rate can be increased up to a maximum of 0.75l/ha in the autumn.

Spitfire has a further advantage of having the largest broad-leaved weed spectrum of autumn applied broad leaved weed herbicide options. Giving robust control of many weeds including cleavers. Spitfire will control the most yield robbing and unsightly weeds in winter cereals.

Preventing nitrogen leaching during fluctuating weather patterns

From one of the wettest Junes in recent years to one of the driest Augusts on record our weather across many parts of the country has delivered challenging conditions for a wide range of crops. With these fluctuations in our weather patterns crop husbandry becomes even more challenging.

corn_n-lockThis year Dow AgroSciences conducted field scale trials with N-LockTM, our nitrogen stabiliser product, with different fertiliser application regimes on a crop of feed wheat in Norfolk. A total of 260kg N/ha was applied either in one application, two application or three applications. N-Lock was applied across all plots at the start of spring. Throughout the growing season no visible differences could be observed and the plot which received all of its nitrogen in mid- March did not fall over! The plots were harvested in mid-August with less than a 2% difference in yield across them all. This work helps build data showing N-Lock protects nitrogen from moving away / leaching from crop roots and helping to manage the busy spring workload on farms by allowing one or two fertiliser applications to be dropped without having a potential yield penalty.

Maize harvesting is in full swing, slightly later than a “normal” year, again due to weather, especially temperature fluctuations and a very wet June. N-Lock treated and untreated plots are being harvested. The photo shows the cob samples from one field in Suffolk. As shown the treated samples have consistently larger cobs, this has been seen in other crops across the region this year. The fresh weight N-Lock plot yield at this site was over 11% more than the untreated plot.

N-Lock is showing again this year that keeping nitrogen in the rooting zone for longer optimises yield and protects a grower’s fertiliser investment.

Time your oilseed rape treatment to perfection

Kerb® Flo 500 and ASTROKerb® dominate the weed control market in winter oilseed rape. It is not surprising given the successful experience of thousands of growers over millions of acres treated over decades.

However, making the most of these products depends on good establishment and the right weather and soil conditions. That means moist soils with a firm tilth and soil temperature below 10°C at 30cm depth.

If this sounds a bit too complex, then let Dow AgroSciences postcode checker help you.

This online tool can be found at you need do is enter your postcode and check the ‘traffic light’ display.

Red = wait
Amber = get ready
Green = time to take action

It really could not be simpler.

If the autumn stays mild, don’t panic as you have until 31st January to apply either of these products. The traffic light system is not a definitive go/don’t go but a tool to advise a farmer or agronomist that conditions are coming right to apply or perhaps a prompt to investigate more thoroughly the timing of an application on a particular farm or field.

And before you spray, be sure to take note of the Voluntary Initiative guidelines on ensuring oilseed rape herbicides do not enter water courses. In particular, do not spray when drains are running or when rain is forecast within 48 hours. This is vital advice to preserve access to the most effective active ingredient in the oilseed rape growers’ armoury.

Large Canopies and Kerb Application

Trials have shown that even where canopies are dense, excellent blackgrass control can be achieved once optimum soil conditions are met.

Outlined below are the results of a trial in Essex to investigate the efficacy of Kerb Flo 500 on blackgrass in oilseed rape when applied with an intact crop canopy or with the crop canopy removed. Kerb Flo 500 was applied at two different timings, an early timing, sprayed on 26th November 2015, and a later timing which was applied on 4th January 2016. The crop canopy was either left intact or removed prior to spray application.

Product: Kerb Flo 500
@ 1.7 L/ha
Crop drilled: 19 August 2015
@ 5.0 kg/ha
Variety: Picto
Spray timing A: 26 Nov 2015 Crop BBCH 17-19 (canopy
intact treatment)
Blackgrass BBCH 14-21
Spray timing B: 4 Jan 2016 Crop BBCH 11-19 (canopy
intact treatment)
Blackgrass BBCH 15-25


OSR Canopy Removal Trial – UK 2015


Spray timing A: 26 November 2015, blackgrass GS 14-21
Spray timing B:  4 January 2016, blackgrass GS 15-25

Canopy Removal Conclusions

  • A full oilseed rape crop canopy at time of application makes no difference to final levels of blackgrass control when using Kerb Flo 500
  • Waiting for optimal soil conditions, i.e. soil temperature at 30cm is <10oC and declining and soils are moist, is still the correct approach, regardless of ground cover from a well-developed crop canopy
  • The latest field-based research data proves our advice remains current, correct and fully effective.

For more regular updates on agronomic issues, find us on Twitter and Facebook!

If you require any further information please contact our Technical Hotline on 0800 689 8899 or your local Dow AgroSciences representative.

Use plant protection products safely. Always read the label and product information before use.
Pay attention to the Risk Indication and follow the Safety Precautions on the label.

® ™ Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow.
All other brand names are trademarks of other manufacturers for which proprietary rights may exist.

ASTROKerb contains aminopyralid and propyzamide
Broadway Star contains pyroxsulam and florasulam
Kerb Flo 500 contains propyzamide
N-Lock contains nitrapyrin
Spitfire contains florasulam and fluroxypyr

More information can be found at
Dow AgroSciences Limited, CPC2, Capital Park, Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB21 5XE. Tel: +44 (0) 1462 457272.

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Grassland Agronomy Update – July 2016


Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences.

These regular technical notes are a seasonal commentary to help those interested in improving grassland productivity on dairy, beef, sheep & equestrian enterprises.

You can claim 2 CPD points for subscribing to this email update.


  • Spraying clover in grass swards
  • Tackling Heracleum
  • Who can buy sprays?
  • Dock beetle and Ramularia rubella – help or hindrance?
  • Application advice on the Grassland Weed App
  • How flowering affects spray efficacy
  • FAQs
  • Dow AgroSciences’ show dates

Spraying clover in grass swards

If weeds need controlling and clover is present then what are the options?

docks & clover

Docks and Clover

Where weed infestations are small or concentrated in particular areas, applying herbicides as a spot treatment or through a weed wiper will kill the weeds, leaving the clover relatively unscathed.

At best a weed wiper will deliver 70% of the control that an overall spray application would achieve. Currently just glyphosate has an approval for this method so it does have limitations.

Where weeds account for 20% or more of the field, there may not be enough saving in bagged nitrogen fertiliser to be worth saving the clover.
In these situations, use an effective translocated herbicide such as Doxstar®Pro, Pastor®Pro or Thistlex®, and re-introduce the clover later by over-sowing 6 weeks later. If using Forefront® T, wait for 4 months.

Oversowing – have a plan

The key is allowing the clover seed to fall on bare, moist soil so it can germinate. This can be done with a combination of tight grazing and grass harrowing or direct drilling.

On cutting ground

  • Check and correct pH, P and K in the previous autumn
  • Spray with an appropriate translocated herbicide at least three to four weeks before cutting
  • After cutting, stock with dry cows or youngstock. Do not apply N
  • Grass harrow – two to six passes to create 25% bare ground
  • Broadcast clover seed and grass harrow
  • Roll and/or stock with dry cows or youngstock for six to ten days
  • Remove stock and rest for three to four weeks, then mob stock graze and repeat until winter

On grazing ground

  • Check and correct pH, P and K in the previous autumn
  • Spray with an appropriate translocated herbicide in the autumn
  • Grass harrow dense swards previous spring and autumn
  • Graze tight March/April (for April sowing), although sowing is preferable in July
  • Grass harrow – two to six passes to create 25% bare ground
  • Broadcast clover seed and grass harrow
  • Roll and/or stock with dry cows/youngstock for six to ten days
  • Remove stock and rest for three to four weeks, then mob stock graze and repeat until clover has established

Tackling Heracleum

The number of Hotline queries on hogweeds has increased this year. But what can be done to control Apiaceae weeds?

Giant Hogweed

Giant Hogweed

Hogweeds (Heracleum) are a genus of about 60 species of biennial and perennial herbs in the carrot family Apiaceae. Many species exhibit lofty, upward-facing white flowers borne on the top of thick, bristly stems. They are close relatives of cow parsley.

Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) is a native of the Caucasus Mountains, growing four to five metres tall. It is now a serious invasive weed across Europe including the UK, after being introduced as a garden plant in the early nineteenth century.

Giant hogweed can cause severe photo-dermatitis if its sap gets onto human skin, causing burns when exposed to sunlight.

Common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium) is also common in Europe and its sap can also cause rashes and skin irritation.

Classified as an invasive alien, it is an offence to cause giant hogweed to grow in the wild anywhere in the UK. It can also be subject to Anti-Social Behaviour Orders, where occupiers of giant hogweed infested ground can be required to remove the weed or face penalties.

Controlling hogweed

Giant Hogweed 5When they are small, and before they have produced a flowering spike, hogweeds can be pulled up by hand. It essential to cover arms and legs and to wear a facemask when doing this.

Cut plant debris, contaminated clothing and tools are potentially hazardous too. Wash any skin that comes into contact with the plant immediately.
If the infestation is too large, or it is too late to pull the plants up, chemical control should be considered.

Young foliage should be sprayed in May and the plants re-treated in August and September if needed. Or summer foliage can be cut back down and the regrowth sprayed. Mature plants are likely to need more than one treatment to kill them.

Dying giant hogweed is a controlled waste and if taken off-site can only be disposed of in a licensed landfill site with full documentation.
The smaller native hogweed is not classed as a controlled waste, but should still be disposed of with care to avoid human contact.

Dow herbicides?
Currently our most effective solutions are those that contain aminopyralid and can be applied via a knapsack: Synero®, Garlon® Ultra or Icade®.

Who can buy sprays?

All farmers who are spraying herbicides now need to be certified – but they don’t need certification to buy them.

Grassland StoreNew legislation, under the Plant Protection Products (Sustainable Use) Regulations that came into force at the end of 2015, now requires all sprayer operators, however old they are, who are applying professional pesticide products (PPPs), to have a Specified Certificate.

Farmers who were born before 31 December 1964 and previously sprayed under the ‘Grandfather Rights’ exemption, must take the Level 2 Award in the safe use of pesticides replacing grandfather rights, or take the existing Level 2 safe use of pesticides (PA) certificate.

If they do not want to take the tests, they must hand over the spraying to a family member or employee who has the correct qualifications, or use a spray contractor.

Buying PPPs

However, uncertified farmers can still buy most pesticides, such as DoxstarPro and Thistlex over the counter, as long as they know that the person who will be using them is certified. There is no legal obligation to show any certificates to the person selling the products.

The farmer buying the products needs to ensure the intended sprayer operator is suitably qualified, or will be working under the direct supervision of someone who is suitably qualified, perhaps because they are undergoing training.

This legislation applies to all livestock farmers and smallholders, many of whom may only occasionally use professional pesticides. Even those using products such as Grazon®Pro in a knapsack on their own farm, have to be certified.

Specified certificates, previously known as certificates of competence, are issued by City and Guilds Land Based Services. Visit the National Proficiency Tests Council at or the local agricultural college for PA2 (ground crop sprayer – mounted or trailed) and PA6 (hand-held applicator) courses.

Existing PA certificates of competence in the safe use of pesticides continue to be recognised under the new legislation.

For more information see the Changes to Legislation: A Guide for Grassland Herbicides on the Dow AgroSciences website

Dock beetles and Ramularia rubella – help or hindrance?

Dock beetles (Gastrophysa viridula) and the fungus Ramularia rubella can attack dock plants – but are they helpful when spraying?

dock beetle cropped

Dock beetle

Green dock leaf beetle is a native beetle, which is green with a metallic shimmer. Depending on the light they can look gold green, blue, purple, violet or red. Their strong legs also shimmer.

They feed mainly on any of the Rumex species, including broad-leaved dock. Their larvae can only completely develop on Rumex.

The females breed from March to October, laying more than 1,000 eggs in clusters on the underside of the dock’s leaves. The segmented larva hatches after three to six days. After three moults, the larva pupates in a burrow 2cm underground, and the new adult emerges six to nine days later.

Ramularia rubella fungal spores attach onto docks in moist conditions. Their tentacle-like hyphae enter the plant through the stomata on the underside of the leaves. Once inside the plant, they push between the plant cells and feed off the nutrients in the leaf.

Ramularian and dock beetle damage

Ramularian and dock beetle damage

Ramularia can also produce toxins, which are activated by sunlight and cause plant cell death. Dead cells create large dark spots with creamy centres on the leaves.

The fungal spores are airborne and released – spreading to other leaves on the same plant and to other docks nearby.

How does this affect spray treatments?

For best control, docks should have young, fresh, actively growing leaves when they are sprayed.

Dock leaves that have been shredded by dock beetle or are covered in purple splodges hinder uptake and translocation of herbicides.

Ramularia is more of a problem in spring, but dock beetles are more of a problem from June through to August.

If affected docks are to be treated, it is best to top the large plants and wait for two to three weeks of fresh regrowth, before spraying with a translocated herbicide such as DoxstarPro.

Application advice on the Grassland Weed App

Grassland App Weed IDThe Dow Grassland APP is available on iOS, Android and Windows platforms. It has a lot of useful support features for those involved in grassland weed control.

An intuitive easy to use APP which:

  • Enables a deep drill of all our grassland technical knowledge
  • Choose a combination of up to 3 weeds and find the best solutions for their control
  • Pick a weed size and get guidance on whether to spray or not
  • A tank dose calculator tool
  • Create a spray record
  • Manages Forefront T stewardship requirements

If you haven’t already downloaded the Dow Grassland APP you can do so with these links:
App Store / Google Play / Windows Store 

If you have already downloaded the APP, please ensure you are using the latest version.


How flowering affects spray efficacy

Spraying herbicide at different times in a plant’s life will significantly affect the result.

2. It is too late to treat buttercups when they are flowering and the field is yellow

All plants have a vegetative stage and a reproductive, or flowering stage.

All the time the plant is not producing seed heads, active growth focuses on the production of new roots and leaves.

During sexual reproduction, seed head development is triggered by mechanisms based on temperature and day length. The stems of the inflorescence buds elongate upwards to carry the developing flower above the ground.

The key aim of translocated herbicides is to travel deep down into the roots to exact a high level of control. This is best done when the plant is growing in a vegetative state.

At flowering, most of the nutrients and water are being carried up towards the flower, rather than down into the roots.

The effect of spraying perennial weeds at flowering is likely to be reduced control. Although the top growth may look like it has been killed, it’s the root control that that determines success and they may not have received sufficient herbicide to make that certain.

Dow AgroSciences advises farmers to spray perennial weeds such as docks, thistles, nettles, buttercups and ragwort BEFORE they flower for best results.

If that proves difficult, then accept that control may be 50% to 80% of what you would expect to achieve or top and spray resulting regrowth some 2 weeks later.


Q: How can I control yellow rattle in grassland?
Forefront T will give the best control, as long as the field is to be grazed with cattle or sheep, or is treated after the last cut of the year. Where fields are being cut for hay or silage use GrazonPro instead.

Q: How soon can I slot-seed grass or clover into a field after treating with Forefront T?
Grass seed can be stitched in after four weeks but for clover you will need to wait 4 months after spraying with Forefront T.

Q: Is it safe to cut for hay 14 days after spraying with Dow AgroSciences grassland products?
Yes, it is safe to cut hay. However, for best long-term weed control, Dow AgroSciences advises leaving up to 28 days before cutting the crop, to allow the active ingredients to reach right down into the roots for more effective control.

Q: As a farmer, do I need to have the Dow Grassland App to be able to receive Forefront T stewardship recommendations from my agronomist?
No, a farmer just needs to be able to receive and respond to the stewardship recommendation email. This can be done via a PC, tablet or smartphone.

Q: Will DoxstarPro have any effect on nettles?
Yes, DoxstarPro will give moderate control and a reduction in top growth, as will Thistlex. However, PastorPro or GrazonPro are better alternatives for using against nettles.

Grassland Show 2105Show Dates

The technical team from Dow AgroSciences will be out and about at many shows and events this summer, talking to farmers and agronomists and answering questions on how to tackle weed problems in their fields.

Catch the team at:

July 6th/7th Livestock Event Brimingham NEC
Nov 16th AgriScot Edinburgh



2 BASIS points (1 crop protection and 1 personal development) will be awarded to those subscribing to Dow AgroSciences’ Grassland Agronomy Update. Please include course name ‘Grassland Agronomy Update’ and ref number: CPE/51889/1617/g, on your training record. If necessary contact Robert Calladine ( to redeem points. These details are valid until 31st May 2017.

Let us know if you have a colleague who would like to receive this newsletter and we will add them the distribution list. Contact us on

For regular updates on agronomic issues, find us on Twitter and Facebook!

For further information please contact the technical Hotline on 0800 689 8899 / or go to

Use plant protection products safely. Always read the label and product information before use. For further information including warning phrases and symbols refer to label.

® Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. All other brand names are trademarks of other manufacturers for which proprietary rights may exist.

DoxstarPro contains fluroxypyr and triclopyr
Forefront T contains aminopyralid and triclopyr
Garlon Ultra contains aminopyralid and triclopyr
GrazonPro contains clopyralid and triclopyr
Icade contains aminopyralid and triclopyr
PastorPro contains clopyralid, fluroxypyr and triclopyr
Synero contains aminopyralid and fluroxypyr
Thistlex contains clopyralid and triclopyr

Dow AgroSciences Limited, Latchmore Court, Brand Street, Hitchin, Hertfordshire, SG5 1NH.Tel: +44 (0) 1462 457272. Technical Hotline: 0800 689 8899 email: |

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Preparing Grain Stores for Harvest

With farm economics under pressure, growers cannot afford to risk post-harvest losses due to poor grain store hygiene.

Mite and insect infestation in UK stored grain causes annual losses of 5-10%.

Pests, in particular mites, can still breed at low temperatures of 5°C.  The mild winter will have allowed egg- laying and populations may have already become established; these can build rapidly so it is important to take preventative action.

Mite and insect feeding results in direct losses but can also have a detrimental effect on the quality of stored grain. Whether intended for milling, malting or feed, infested grain runs the risk of being rejected.

Flour mite

Mites – the commonest pest of stored grain

Good ventilation, drying and cooling are important processes in grain store management. Respiring insects and mites will generate heat and moisture and can cause localised hot spots within the grain pile which further promote breeding and may encourage the development of moulds.

Reldan™ 22 is a broad spectrum acaricide and insecticide that will control all major pests of stored grain including Flour, Cosmopolitan and Copra Mites, the three main mite species found in UK grain stores. Reldan 22 is the only pre-harvest grain store treatment effective on these common pests.

Ideally fabric applications of Reldan 22 should be applied 4 weeks prior to grain filling to allow sufficient time for pests harboured in cracks and crevices to emerge and come into contact with the chemical.

Reldan works by fumigation, contact and ingestion and can offer protection for up to 6 months against mite and insect infestation. There is no withholding period for grain subsequently stored on those premises.

Pre-Harvest Action Plan:
Grain store fabric treatment using Reldan 22 should be used as part of an integrated management approach:

  1. Ensure grain store is emptied of any old grain and debris
    o Apply the same principles to grain handling equipment
  2. Sweep or ideally use a high pressure airline grain store paying close attention to crevices
    o Don’t neglect roof space including rafters and joists, and under the ventilation flooring. Dust provides a breeding site for mites and insects
    o Ensure sweepings are disposed of well away from grain store sites or ideally, burn them
    o Wear appropriate PPE including a dust mask
  3. Apply Reldan 22 at 200ml in 5-10 Litres of water per 100 m2 ideally 4 weeks before harvest via a knapsack, motorised knapsack or tractor-operated spray lance
    o If surfaces are porous increase the water volume to 10 litres per 100m2
  4. Wear impermeable coveralls, suitable protective gloves, rubber boots and face protection and for best practice ensure good ventilation during application
  5. Post treatment and through-out grain storage check grain store regularly for insect activity using sticky and pitfall traps

Can I apply Reldan 22 to stores intended for oilseed rape?
Yes. If the store is metal bins allow 4 weeks minimum before loading with oilseed rape. If concrete, this can be reduced to 1 day but do remember ideally you want 4 weeks between treatment and filling, to allow treatment to work.

For more detailed support literature on Reldan 22, click on this link.

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Kerb Weather Data – Final Report – Week ending 18th November 2016

Kerb® Weather Data gives timing advice for application of Kerb Flo 500 and ASTROKerb® to oilseed rape. (For beans, Kerb Flo 500 must be applied within 7 days of drilling but before crop emergence).

With cooler conditions and moist soils consider application to oilseed rape when conditions allow. Consider potential risk to watercourses. Consult VI for advice.

For optimal blackgrass control Dow AgroSciences recommend Kerb Flo 500 and ASTROKerb applications are made when soil temperatures have got down to 10°C and falling, and there is sufficient soil moisture in the soil for grassweed uptake.

Check out application conditions for your local postcode


 Click on the link to the left to use the postcode checker.


Simply enter your postcode in the banner and click GO
to view the results.




Will the activity of ASTROKerb be affected by low temperatures occur after application?
No, although broad-leaved weeds will only start to show symptoms and die when active growth re-commences.

 Do I need a dry-leaf for application?
The propyzamide active in Kerb Flo 500 is soil-acting so spraying wet weeds at run-off or light rainfall after application is not an issue. Ideally, the rainfastness of ASTROKerb is 1 hour for the aminopyralid element. Spraying on a drying leaf is OK but if rainfall falls within 1 hour and causes run-off efficacy may be reduced. All applications should be made with due regard to water stewardship, i.e. do not spray where there is a risk of run-off to adjacent watercourses.

 Can I apply Kerb Flo 500 in a frost?
Kerb Flo 500 may be applied in frosty conditions but avoid application onto frozen ground where subsequent rainfall could result in run-off into watercourses.

 For ASTROKerb please ensure frost is off the target broad-leaved weed.

 If severe frosts are experienced before Kerb application, there may be some shear of surface roots of blackgrass. In this situation adventitious roots may subsequently develop, which will take up propyzamide from a later application. In this scenario we have seen excellent results from December/January application.

 Download Topic Sheet 16 “Advice for Blackgrass Control in Oilseed Rape” for further advice.



First Report – week ending 14th October 2016
Second Report – week ending 28th October 2016
Third Report – week ending 4th November 2016
Fourth Report – week ending 11th November 2016
To receive Kerb Weather Data reports next year, or other newsletters, direct to your inbox, click here.

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View All Topic Sheets
Which Dow AgroSciences products control ryegrass in winter wheat?

Broadway Star or Unite.

Ryegrass does have a similar biology to blackgrass in terms of emergence, seed persistence and depth of emergence, so cultural control methods used for blackgrass will also be applicable to ryegrass. A programmed approach to herbicide control is also needed.

When is the best time to control sterile brome in winter wheat?

Sterile or barren brome germinates in the autumn and grows very quickly.

Control is best achieved in a programme with  2000g ai/ha pendimethalin followed ideally by autumn applied Broadway Star or Unite. Best control is achieved when applied before GS24 of the brome.  

Why do volunteer beans need to be controlled?

Volunteer beans grow fast and can shade grassweeds from contact herbicides as well as compete with the establishing cereal.  Spitfire at 0.5 L/ha + supported adjuvant controls beans up to 4 true leaves and is approved for use in wheat, barley, oats, rye and triticale including those undersown with grass.

What rate of Stomp Aqua can I use with Kerb Flo 500 on beans?

Stomp Aqua can be used with Kerb Flo 500 pre-emergence on winter beans but do watch rate.  Use 0.8 L/ha Kerb Flo 500 + 1.75 L/ha Stomp Aqua OR 1.7 L/ha Kerb Flo 500 + 1.3 L/ha Stomp Aqua.  Continuously agitate.  Use of this mix is at own risk as Stomp Aqua approval is an EAMU.

What is the optimum timing for ASTROKerb?

When targeting blackgrass in winter oilseed rape we recommend soil temperatures at or below 10oC to get sufficient activity from propyzamide.  Good control is achieved when a lethal concentration is reached in the weed.  ASTROKerb will also give good control of poppy and mayweed at this timing.

What can be used to control volunteer rape in cereals?

Spitfire controls volunteer rape and can be used in wheat, barley, oats rye and triticale including those undersown with grass.  UNITE and Broadway Star also offer excellent control of volunteer rape as well as key grassweeds.

Which pre-emergence herbicide should I use for brome control in a Broadway Star programme?

Products like Crystal are a good pre emergence in a brome situation.  2000 g ai /ha of pendimethalin in the programme is required for brome.

Can the straw from oilseed rape treated with ASTROKerb be used for animal bedding?

Oilseed rape straw from crops treated with ASTROKerb needs to remain in the field and must not be baled and used for bedding.  It may be removed from the field to be used for burning for heat or elctricity production.

Can I plant cover crops even where they are not listed as a following crop on the label?

The planting of any crop (not subject to human consumption/MRL requirements) not specifically  recommended on the label would need to be at the users risk where following crop safety has not been demonstrated.