Grassland Agronomy Update – March 2017

Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences.

These regular technical notes are a seasonal commentary to help those interested in improving grassland productivity on dairy, beef, sheep & equestrian enterprises.

You can claim 2 CPD points for subscribing to this email update.


The arsenal for grassland weed control
• Three new solutions for 2017!
• The argument for weed control in grassland
• Legislation made simple
• Grassland weed App essential to recommend Forefront T
• Take the BASIS Grass course
• FAQs
• Dow AgroSciences show calendar

The arsenal for grassland weed control

Herbicide options for grassland continue to disappear!

Hysward, Pastoral Plus, Mircam, Mircam Ultra and Mircam Plus, Trinity, Transfer, Relay P and Grassland Herbicide, can no longer be bought by farmers to treat weeds in their grassland.

Our own much favoured PastorPro® was revoked so that sales ceased from 31st October 2016. Usage on farm can continue though until 31st October 2017. We have a replacement option for this year – Pas.Tor Agronomy Pack. See below.

Many products have lost knapsack use approvals and for some stock exclusion periods have been extended.

Those that are re-registered may have shorter windows of application or dose rate reductions.

We will rely on a smaller number of solutions so stewardship, appropriate use and robust dose rates are key to sustaining those that remain.

Three new solutions for 2017!

With a strong R&D ethos, a reputation for science and innovation and a focus on meeting the needs of the market, Dow AgroSciences is launching three new solutions for the market this year.

There is a new concept for the market: the Pas.Tor® Agronomy pack and two new grassland herbicides – both incorporating the active ingredient florasulam. This is the first new active for weed control and use on grassland for over 12 years.

The two new products, Leystar® and Envy® have received approval from CRD and are available now for recommendation and use as is Pas.Tor Agronomy pack.

Leystar has been approved for use on new sown leys, grass grown for seed and maize. Many grassland herbicides have recently lost approval for use in new sown leys. This option will fill a vital gap. Leystar, with three actives: florasulam, fluroxypyr & clopyralid and so delivers a very wide spectrum of weed control. It controls fat hen, charlock, chickweed, mayweed, seedling docks & thistles and useful activity on redshank, orache, fumitory and others.


• 100 g/litre fluroxypyr + 80 g/litre clopyralid + 2.5 g/litre florasulam
• Use at 1.0 L/ha on new sown leys from 1st Feb to 31st August
• Apply from third leaf visible stage of the grass
• Comes in a 2 litre pack and should be applied in 200 litres water
• Will kill clover


Weeds in young maize crops can also be controlled with Leystar. This is the first approval for florasulam in maize. Combined with fluroxypyr and clopyralid, it presents a comprehensive post emergence broad leaved weed control solution.


  • Apply at 1.0 L/ha from 10th April to 31st May and between the 3-6 leaf stage and
  • Do not apply once the crop is over 20 cm tall
  • Excellent control of Black nightshade, field bind weed & black bindweed

Click here for the technical information sheet for Leystar.


Envy is a new selective herbicide for grassland. It contains fluroxypyr and florasulam – a new active for established grassland. It delivers excellent control of all species of buttercups. There are three main areas of use:

  1. Use in paddocks and pastures where overgrazing or lack of nutrients creates a weed problem perfect for an Envy treatment
  2. To control chickweed in established pastures. Much better than straight fluroxypyr as it works better in cooler conditions and requires a lower dose of product
  3. To control a wide range of broadleaved weeds in new sown leys

Applied at 2.0 lt/ha, Envy will control buttercups, dandelions, plantain, daisies and docks. It is particularly suited to use in equine grazed paddocks as there are no subsequent concerns with respect to herbicide residues in manure. This is important as dung is frequently picked up and composted before being used in gardens and allotments.

• 100 g/litre fluroxypyr + 2.5 g/litre florasulam
• Comes in a handy 3L pack so treats 1.5 ha or 3.7 acres
• A short grazing interval of just 7 days so animals can return quickly
• It can be applied from 1st February to 30th November – so excellent for weed control in autumn re-seeds
• It will kill clover
• The dose rate on established grassland is 2.0 L/ha and so the 3 litre pack treats 1.5 hectares or 3.7 acres
• Apply in a water volume of 200 L/ha.
• Rainfast in 2 hours

Click here for the technical information sheet for Envy.

The Pas.Tor® Agronomy Pack delivers broad spectrum weed control akin to the use of 3.0 L/ha of PastorPro.  Apply 1.0 L/ha Pas and 1.0 L/ha Tor in a mix to get excellent control of docks thistles and nettles. The stock withdrawal period is just 7 days and the combination is very safe to grass.


  • PAS contains 150 g/litre fluroxypyr + 150 g/litre triclopyr
  • TOR contains 200 g/litre clopyralid + 200 g/litre triclopyr
  • Each box contain 1 x 2.0 litres PAS + 1 x 2.0 litres TOR and so will treat 2 hectares or 5 acres
  • Water volumes can be reduced to 200 L/ha with air inclusion nozzles
  • For use only in established grassland >12 months old

Click here for the technical information sheet for PAS.TOR Agronomy pack.


The argument for weed control in grassland

Livestock farmers do not spend much on agrochemicals, yet the benefits of spraying weeds are clear to see once they have gone.

In the UK & Ireland, we are uniquely positioned to be able to grow grass better than anywhere else in the world. As an asset though it is underutilized and can & should work harder. There is growing interest in maximizing its use driven to a large extent by recent low output prices for milk but also consumer preferences, sustainability, animal welfare, ease of management.

Grass is the cheapest form of feed for ruminants and when managed well provides high quality, nutritious fresh and conserved forage.
Last year April was a very wet month so many dock infested silage fields did not get sprayed. Where infestations remain untreated, weeds will have grown and spread. This spring could see greater demand than usual.

Where broad-leaved weeds grow, grass cannot! A 10% infestation of docks or thistles leads to a 10% grass yield reduction – on a hectare of grassland that’s an extra tonne of grass dry matter, which could give 1,000 extra litres of milk, or allow one more beef animal or five additional sheep to graze, even assuming 50% utilisation.

We need to show livestock farmers how to make ‘more grass from what they’ve got’. Go to the Dow Grassland APP and use the Weed Cost tool to help in this effort.

Legislation made simple

Recent legislation has seen loss of Grandfather Rights & introduction of Sprayer MOTs. Here then a summary of the rules as it relates to pesticides for professional use:

To buy: Anyone can purchase a pesticide for professional use provided they can certify that the application will be done by a suitably qualified spray operator. The obligation is on them to abide by this and it is an offence not to do so.

To apply professional use products, the sprayer operator will need either:

1) A Level 2 Safe Use of pesticide certificate – PA1 & PA2 for boom sprayer or PA1 & PA6 for hand held sprayers. You must have this certification if carrying out spray contracting for 3rd parties, and when spraying your own land.
2) The NTPC Level 2 award in the safe use of pesticides (replacing grandfather rights).

Sprayer MOTs. All boom sprayers greater than 3m width now need a Sprayer MOT issued by the National Sprayer Testing Scheme (NSTS). Hand held and Knapsack sprayers and boom sprayer less than 3m width are exempt from this.

To store Professional use products, a farmer must… have a store that can retain leakage or spillage to a volume of 110% of the total quantity of products likely to be stored (185% if you are in an ‘environmentally sensitive area’). Bunding is the most usual way of achieving this.

Dow Grassland App – your essential support tool for grassland weed control

The Dow Grassland APP now has more details on our new solution Envy and Leystar, and many useful support features.  It must now be used for the stewardship requirements of Forefront®T. Use it to:

• Find the ideal product solution by selecting up to 3 key weeds from the image gallery
• Manage Forefront T stewardship reporting
• Calculate the cost of weeds in grassland
• Get the latest information on our new products
• Use the searchable FAQ database to find answers to your problems.

Forefront T is our most effective long lasting perennial weed control solution for grassland. Its weed spectrum is fantastic and it has the ability to completely transform the productive capacity of a weed infested grass ley.

Its use comes with a requirement for the farmer to be made aware of the subsequent manure management restrictions before purchasing Forefront T, by a BASIS certified advisor. The APP now makes this process quick and eliminates the need for a paper based system.

You can also access APP features and Forefront T stewardship via the internet:

If you have not already downloaded the Dow Grassland App, use one of these links:

App Store / Google Play / Windows Store 

If the App is already downloaded, please ensure the latest version is being used.

Take the BASIS Grass course

Agronomists with the BASIS Certificate in Crop Protection in grassland and forage crops are able to:

▪ Be aware of the different types of grassland found in the UK
▪ Understand the different plant species used in grassland and their role in production
▪ Explain how plants grow and develop through the season and the effects this has on feed value
▪ Understand how weed problems develop in forage crop situations and the steps appropriate to control them
▪ Appreciate the economic and environmental importance of grass and forage crop pest control
▪ Recognize potential diseases and recommend appropriate methods of prevention, treatment and control
▪ Understand pesticide safety and approve aspects specific to grassland/ livestock farm situations
▪ Understand pesticide application in forage crop situations
▪ Understand aspects of hand-held and small scale/local pesticide application methods.

Visit BASIS: to find out when and where the courses are being run in 2017.


Q. The product label says for use in ‘established grassland’, what is established grassland?
A. Established grassland is grass over 12 months old.

Q. Can I use lower water volumes when spraying Dow AgroSciences’ grassland herbicides?
A. You can reduce water volumes to 200 litres/ha if using air inclusion nozzles – watch this short video for further information
Using air inclusion nozzles sustains performance at lower water volumes, as they produce spray droplets that are larger and all of similar sizes, there is less drift and the aerated droplets spread more evenly on leaf surfaces.

Q. Will Envy control all species of buttercups?
Yes – Envy will give good control of buttercup species.

Show Dates

The technical team from Dow AgroSciences will be out and about at many shows and events this summer, talking to farmers and agronomists and answering questions on how to tackle weed problems in their fields.

Catch the team at:

May 16th NSA Welsh Sheep  Brecon, Powys
May 18th NBA Beef Expo  Stoneleigh Park, Warwickshire
May 24th & 25th Grassland & Muck  Stoneleigh Park, Warwickshire
May 31st NSA Highland Sheep  Strathpeffer,Ross-shire
June 8th NSA North Sheep  Tow Law, County Durham
June 8th Scottish Beef Event  Earlston, Berwickshire
June 20th NSA Sheep South West Tiverton, Devon



2 BASIS points (1 crop protection and 1 personal development) will be awarded to those subscribing to Dow AgroSciences’ Grassland Agronomy Update. Please include course name ‘Grassland Agronomy Update’ and ref number: CPE/51889/1617/g, on your training record. If necessary contact Linda ( to redeem points. These details are valid until 31st May 2017.

For regular updates on agronomic issues, find us on Twitter and Facebook!

For further information please contact the technical Hotline on 0800 689 8899 / or go to

Use plant protection products safely. Always read the label and product information before use. For further information including warning phrases and symbols refer to label.

® Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow.  All other brand names are trademarks of other manufacturers for which proprietary rights may exist.

Envy contains fluroxypyr and florasulam
Forefront T contains aminopyralid and triclopyr
Leystar contains fluroxypyr. clopyralid and florasulam
PastorPro contains clopyralid, fluroxypyr and triclopyr
PAS contains fluroxypyr and triclopyr, TOR contains clopyralid and triclopyr

Dow AgroSciences Limited, CPC2, Capital Park, Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB21 5XE. Tel: +44 (0) 1462 457272.
Technical Hotline: 0800 689 8899 email: |

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Problem Solution Dose Rate Water Volume Grazing Interval
Docks and Chickweed 2.0 L/ha 300-400 L/ha 7 days
Weedy paddocks
Chickweed control
Weeds in new sown leys
1.5 - 2.0 L/ha 200-400 L/ha 7 days
Docks, Thistles, Nettles, Buttercups, Dandelions and Ragwort 2.0 L/ha 200-300 L/ha 7 days
Knapsack/spot treatment: Docks, Thistles, Nettles, Brambles, Gorse and Broom 60 mls 10 Litres 7 days
Weed control in new leys, grass for seed and maize 1.0 L/ha 200 L/ha 7 days
Docks, Thistles, Nettles 1 L/ha Pas + 1 L/ha Tor 200 L/ha with air inclusion nozzles 7 days
Thistles 1.0 L/ha 200-400 L/ha 7 days

Grassland Agronomy Update – March 2017 03/03/2017

Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences. These regular technical notes are a seasonal commentary to help those interested in improving grassland productivity on dairy, beef, sheep & equestrian enterprises. You can claim 2 CPD points for subscribing to this email update. Contents • The arsenal for grassland weed control • Three new […]

Read the full story

Spraying Grassland with Low Water Volumes 13/01/2017

Dow AgroSciences now supports reducing water volumes whilst spraying grassland. Water volumes can be reduced to 200 L/ha when using Air Inclusion nozzles.

Read the full story

Control thistles this summer to save time next spring 18/07/2016

Thistles have been slow to grow this year, but with many a metre high or more and bursting into flower, now is a good time to tackle them before they set and spread their seed. “Weed control in grassland is usually done in the spring, when there are a lot of other significant jobs to […]

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Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences. These regular technical notes are a seasonal commentary to help those interested in improving grassland productivity on dairy, beef, sheep & equestrian enterprises. You can claim 2 CPD points for subscribing to this email update. Contents Spraying clover in grass swards Tackling Heracleum Who can buy […]

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Grassland Agronomy Update – May 2016 27/05/2016

  Welcome to the Grassland Agronomy Update from Dow AgroSciences. These technical notes offer seasonal commentary for those interested in improving grassland productivity and use on dairy, beef, sheep and equestrian enterprises. Claim 2 BASIS points by subscribing to this email update.  To subscribe please send your details to, with the title GRASSLAND AGRONOMY […]

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Grassland News Archive
Are Dow AgroSciences grassland herbicides clover safe?
No, clover will be killed or severely checked by applications of Dow AgroSciences’ grassland herbicides.  However you can stitch clover back in after six weeks of applying PastorPro, Thistlex, DoxstarPro or GrazonPro. When using Forefront T, clover can be reintroduced four months after application.
Can any of the Grassland products; DoxstarPro, Forefront T, PastorPro, Thistlex or GrazonPro be tank mixed with MCPA or 2,4-D?
This approach is not recommended and is not supported by Dow AgroSciences. Quick 'burn down' of top growth with phenoxy herbicides can hinder movement of the translocated active ingredients in DoxstarPro, Forefront T, PastorPro, Thistlex and GrazonPro to the roots, leading to poor levels of weed control.
Can DoxstarPro, Forefront T, PastorPro, Thistlex or GrazonPro be used on new leys (<12 months old)?
No. Grassland should be at least 12 months old for all of the above products. Use Leystar or Envy for grass leys under 12 months.  
Can I apply PastorPro through a Knapsack?
No. There is no approval for hand-held application of PastorPro. Consider using  GrazonPro for hand-held applications.
Will PastorPro control thistles?
Yes. Apply at 4.0 L/ha.
Can I use GrazonPro on my lawn?
No. GrazonPro is a professional product recommended for use only as an agricultural herbicide.
How rainfast is GrazonPro?
If GrazonPro is applied to a dry leaf it will be rainfast in 2 hours.
What rate of GrazonPro should be applied through a knapsack?
60 ml of GrazonPro in 10 litres water.
What is the grazing interval for GrazonPro?
Seven days. Ideally allow 28  days if cutting the field for silage or hay. The seven day exclusion period may need to be extended if poisonous weeds are present.
Will GrazonPro control chickweed?
No, but DoxstarPro, Forefront T and PastorPro all give excellent control when applied under the correct conditions.
What is the best Dow grassland product for cow parsley control?
GrazonPro offers good control of cow parsley when used at the rosette stage. It is for spot treatment only. Forefront T and PastorPro can be applied through tractor mounted hydraulic sprayers. Forefront T offers moderate control of cow parsley. Forefront T use is limited to grass grazed by cattle and sheep only.  Although not as effective at Forefront T, PastorPro offers some control of cow parsley and can be used on field including those for silage and hay.
What is the cutting interval after spraying weeds in grassland?
After application of our products leave a minimum of 21 days, ideally 28 days  before cutting to allow maximum translocation of the active ingredients down to the roots of weeds.
What is the grazing/cutting interval after application of PastorPro?
Seven days for grazing and ideally 28 days if grass is being cut. The seven day exclusion period may need to be extended if poisonous weeds are present.
What is the knapsack rate for DoxstarPro, Forefront T, PastorPro and Thistlex?
These products are not recommended for application through a knapsack. GrazonPro at 60 ml in 10 litres of water is the best product for spot treatment.
What is the stock exclusion period for hens?
The same as for livestock: seven days and until foliage of any poisonous weeds such as ragwort has died and become unpalatable.  
What is the stock exclusion period for horses for Doxstar Pro, GrazonPro, PastorPro and Thistlex?
The same as for livestock: 7 days and until foliage of any poisonous weeds such as ragwort has died and become unpalatable.
What products do Dow AgroSciences recommend to control brambles in grassland?
Brambles should be sprayed between June and August, when plants are actively growing, but before plants begin to senesce in the autumn. It is essential that all foliage is thoroughly wetted or incomplete kill may result. The maximum concentration must not exceed 60ml of GrazonPro per 10 litres of water.   Blaster Pro can be used to control brambles in amenity grass.
What water volumes do I need to control docks in established grassland with Doxstar Pro?
Whenever DoxstarPro is used in established grassland the rate of water should always be 300-400 L/ha.
Will any Dow AgroSciences product control ragwort in horse paddocks?
No Dow AgroSciences product is recommended for control of ragwort in horse paddocks. The best method of control is to dig them up. 2,4-D can be used as an overall spray.
Will DoxstarPro, Forefront T or PastorPro control large flowering docks?
No. They must be topped and allowed to regrow. Treatments should then be made under good growing conditions to actively growing plants when they reach the rosette stage.
Will Thistlex control dandelions?
Yes, but it is not an 'on label' weed. Consider topping dandelions and then applying Thistlex 2 - 3 weeks later at the rosette stage of the weed.